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Why retailers struggle to expand internationally

Global retail may be becoming more homogeneous due to international expansion by various chains, but the success of internalisation is patchy within and across retailers, and there have been failures on an industrial scale. This made me curious as to why a retailer fails in some markets and not others. It turns out there are a few common themes. Here’s what I’ve been able to discern from some of the more notable and/or recent failures and market withdrawals. Walmart loses the culture wars Th